Software & Hardware

Hardware Terminology

Binary: A number expressed in the binary numeral system, or base-2 numeral system, which represents numeric values using two different symbols: typically, 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

Bit: The smallest unit of data in a computer represented by one or zero.

Bluetooth: A wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485 GHz [4]) from fixed and mobile devices and building personal area networks.

Bus: The electrical connection between different computer components is an important determiner of the computer’s speed.

Byte: A unit of data that computers use to represent a character such as a letter, number, or typographic symbol with a group of eight bits.

Central Processing Unit (CPU): The “brains” of the device, carries out the commands sent to it by the software and return results to be acted upon.

Digital Devices: This is an electronic device that uses discrete, numerable data and processes for all its operations.

Electronic Waste: Used electronics which are destined for reuse, resale, salvage, recycling, or disposal.


Hard Disk: Where data is stored when the computer is turned off and where it is retrieved from when the computer is turned on.

Hardware: The part of an information system you can touch–the physical components of the technology.

Hertz: A measure of computer processing speed.

Input Devices: Peripheral hardware used to provide data and control signals to a computer. Examples of input devices include keyboards, mice, scanners, digital cameras, and joysticks.

Integrated Computing: Integration of computing technology into everyday products to enhancing its capabilities.

Memory: Specifically, Computer Memory. Any physical device capable of storing information temporarily or permanently.

Moore’s Law: The observation that over the history of computing hardware, the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit has doubled approximately every two years.

Motherboard: The main circuit board on the computer that connects to the CPU, memory, and storage components, among other things.

Network Connection: Provides connectivity between your computer and the Internet, a network, or another computer.

Read Access Memory (RAM): The working memory that begins to load information from the hard disk as the computer starts up.

Output Devices: An output device sends data from a computer to another device or user. This includes audio and video output. Other examples are monitors, projectors, speakers, headphones, and printers.

Removable Media: Fixed storage components. Portable removable storage media. Storage: The retention of retrievable data on a computer or other electronic system.

Storage Devices: This is any device used to store digital data or information through input or output operations.

Solid State Drive (SSD): Performs the same function as a hard disk: long-term storage that uses spinning disks, flash memory, which is much faster.

Software Terminology

Android: A mobile operating system (OS) based on the Linux kernel and currently developed by Google.

Application Software: An application is a set of computer programs designed to permit the user to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities. It cannot run on itself but is dependent on the OS.

Cloud Computing: The practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM): An approach to managing a company's interactions with current and future customers. It often involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize sales, marketing, customer service, and technical support.

Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP): A software application utilizing a central database that is implemented throughout the entire organization.

LINUX/UNIX: Linux is a version of the Unix operating system that runs on a personal computer. Unix is an operating system used primarily by scientists and engineers on larger minicomputers.

iOS (iPhone OS): An operating system used for mobile devices manufactured by Apple Inc.
“Killer” App: An application viewed as so desirable by consumers that it can influence them to purchase devices or applications that include it.

Mobile Applications: Programs that run on tablet computers and smartphones.

Open Source: Software that can be freely used, changed, and shared (in modified or unmodified form) by anyone.

Operating Systems: The program that, after being initially loaded into the computer by a boot program, manages all the other programs in a computer.

Private Cloud: A particular model of cloud computing that involves a distinct and secure cloud-based environment in which only the specified client can operate.

Productivity Software: Software applications have become standard tools for the workplace. For example, Excel or spreadsheet software.

SAP: Systems, Applications & Products in Data Processing. A German multinational software corporation that makes enterprise software to manage business operations and customer relations.

Software: A set of instructions that tells the hardware what to do.

Supply Chain Management (SCM): The management of the flow of goods and services.

Virtualization: Refers to the act of creating a virtual (rather than actual) version of something, including (but not limited to) a virtual computer hardware platform, operating system (OS), storage device, or computer network resources.

Windows: Microsoft’s operating system.