Networking and Communication

ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network): An early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Both technologies became the technical foundation of the Internet. Originally developed by the US Department of Defense.

Bluetooth: A standard for the short-range wireless interconnection of cellular phones, computers, and other electronic devices.

Bridge: A network device that connects two networks and only allows packets through that are needed.

Broadband: a high-capacity transmission technique using a wide range of frequencies, which enables a large number of messages to be communicated simultaneously.

Cloud Computing: The practice of using a network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer.

DNS: Domain Name System which acts as a directory on the Internet when a request to access a device with a domain name is given.

Domain Name: A descriptive text followed by the top-level domain that is a human-friendly name for a device on the internet. For example, cpp.edu or coke.com.

Domain Name Extension: The extension at the end of the domain name that indicates the type of organization, such as .com, .org, .net, Edu., etc.

Extranet: An intranet that can be partially accessed by authorized outside users, enabling businesses to exchange information over the Internet securely.

Hub: A simple network device that connects other devices to the network and sends packets to all the devices that are connected.

Internet: An electronic communications network that connects computer networks and organizational computer facilities around the world.

Intranet: A local or restricted communications network, especially a private network created using World Wide Web software.

IP Address: A unique identifying number assigned to every device that communicates on the internet.

IPV4 and IPV6: The Internet Protocol address standard used has been IPv4(version 4) which has the format of four numbers between 0 and 255 separated by a period. IPv6 (version 6) is formatted as eight groups of four hexadecimal digits.

LAN: Local Area Network. A local network that connects computers and other devices in a relatively small area, typically a single building or a group of buildings.

Mobile Network: A cellular network or mobile network is a communications network where the last link is wireless. The network is distributed over land areas called cells, each served by at least one fixed-location transceiver, known as a cell site or base station.


Packet: The fundamental unit of data transmitted over the internet. Each packet includes the sender’s address, the destination address, a sequence number, and a piece of the overall message to be sent.

Packet Switching: When a packet is passed from one router to another across the Internet until it reaches its destination.

Protocol: A specific set of communication rules used by computers.

Router: A device that receives and analyzes packets and then routes them towards their destination.

Switch: A network device that connects multiple devices and filters packets based on their destination within the connected devices.

TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Defines how electronic devices (like computers) should be connected over the Internet, and how data should be transmitted between them.

Tim Berners-Lee: Inventor of the World Wide Web by developing an easy way to navigate the Internet through the use of linked text (hypertext).

Virtual Private Network: A method employing encryption to provide secure access to a remote computer over the Internet.

VoIP: Voice Over IP. A methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks.

WAN: A Wide Area Network, telecommunications network, or computer network that extends over a large geographical area.

Web 2.0: The second stage of development of the World Wide Web, characterized especially by the change from static web pages to dynamic or user-generated content and the growth of social media.

Web 3.0: A third phase in the evolution of the World Wide Web, based on the idea that the Internet 'understands' the pieces of information it stores and can make logical connections between them.

WIFI: A facility allowing computers, smartphones, or other devices to connect to the Internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area.

World Wide Web: Simply one piece of the Internet made up of web servers that have HTML pages that are being viewed on devices with web browsers.